The declaration of pre and post-conditions may not only talk about the value of the arguments, but also reference their properties, fields, and even some of their functions. This is used, for example, in the contract of the indexing operation of a list, in which we refer to its size.

import arrow.analysis.pre

class List<T> {
  val size: Int
    get() = TODO() // complicated computation
  fun get(index: Int): T {
    pre(index >= 0 && index < this.size) { "index within bounds" }
    // complicated code to get the value

We use the word field to collectively refer to those elements of an argument we are allowed to refer to in a pre- or postcondition, or an invariant of a mutable variable or type. There are two sources for fields:

  1. Properties and fields, like size above.
  2. Instance or extension methods with no arguments, this allows you to use isNotEmpty() as a field.

Given the rules above, the following is accepted by Λrrow Analysis:

import arrow.analysis.pre

fun <T> List<T>.first(): T {
  pre(this.isNotEmpty()) { "list should not be empty" }
  return this.get(0)

Definition of fields

Actually, if you think about it, the fact that the previous code snippet is accepted is not obvious at all! There must be an additional reasoning step for Λrrow Analysis to understand that is the list is not empty, then calling get with 0 as index is allowed, since the precondition for get only mentions size.

It is very common, though, to have this kind of relationship between properties. Furthermore, many style guidelines suggest to use simpler Boolean predicates like isNotEmpty() instead of the longer size > 0. To establish this broken link, Λrrow Analysis follows this rule:

If a field declares no preconditions, and a single postcondition of the form { it == SOMETHING }, then SOMETHING is taken as the definition of that field.

The tool then deems each usage of the derived field as being equivalent to its definition. In our case, the List class would declare the postcondition in isNotEmpty.


class List<T> {
  fun isNotEmpty(): Boolean {
    // complicated code
    return{ this.size > 0 }) { "non-emptiness is size > 0" }

We remark that this definition only applies at the level of Λrrow Analysis. The implementation of isNotEmpty is free to use a more performant algorithm. It’s during the reasoning stage within the analysis that we make use of the equivalence with size > 0.

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